Appendix B: Functional Testing Guide Resources

Books and Guidelines. 1

ASHRAE Resources. 1

Other Resources. 1

Papers and Magazine Articles. 2

Data Logging and Trend Analysis. 2

Commissioning Air Handling Systems and Related Equipment3

Websites. 4

Magazines. 4

Organizations. 6

Tools. 7

 

Books and Guidelines

ASHRAE Resources 

Members and non-members can order copies of the handbooks and other useful resources through the ASHRAE bookstore on their website.  www.ashrae.org

ASHRAE. ASHRAE Guideline 1 – 1996: The HVAC Commissioning Process, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA. 1996. 

ASHRAE, ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Systems and Equipment, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA. 

ASHRAE, ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA. 

ASHRAE, ASHRAE Handbook: Refrigeration, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA. 

ASHRAE, ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Applications, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA. 

ASHRAE, Principles of Smoke Management, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA, 2002. 

Gatley, Donald, Understanding Psychrometrics, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,and Air-Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA, 2002.

ASHRAE Duct Fitting Data Base - ASHRAE recently released an electronic duct fitting data base that will quickly calculate the pressures loss for a wide array of fitting configurations based on inputs like the flow rates and duct sizes.  It will allow you to quickly compare various fitting options on the fly during design, in the course of design review, and when troubleshooting in the field.

Other Resources

AMCA Publications

The Air Movement and Control Association Inc. publishes several documents that can be valuable references and guides for air handling systems.  They are all available by ordering on line from their web site at www.amca.org or contacting them at:

Air Movement and Control Association International Inc.

30 West University Drive

Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004

847-394-0150

Miscellaneous Books and Articles

Colen, H.R., HVAC Systems Evaluation, RS Means Company, Inc.  1990.

Haines and Wilson, HVAC Systems Design Handbook: Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.

Honeywell, Engineering Manual of Automatic Control for Commercial Buildings, 1997. 

Pacific Gas and Electric Company, CoolTools: A Toolkit to Optimize Chilled Water Plants, available at www.hvacexchange.com/cooltools/guides_frm.htm

Portland Energy Conservation, Inc., Energy Management Systems: A Practical Guide, O&M Best Practices Series, October 1997.

Portland Energy Conservation, Inc., Portable Dataloggers: Diagnostic Tools for Energy-Efficient Building Operation, O&M Best Practices Series, September 1999.

Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, A Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings, National Technical Information Service: Springfield, VA.  April 1999. 

SMACNA

Sheet Metal Contractors National Association, HVAC Duct Construction Standards, Metal and Flexible, 1993.

This publication contains details and standards for the fabrication and installation of commercial and institutional duct systems and accessories.  

Sheet Metal Contractors National Association, HVAC Systems, Duct Design, 1990.

This publication is a fundamental design manual for commercial and light industrial HVAC systems offering the designer options for energy efficient design methods, materials and construction. 

Sheet Metal Contractors National Association, HVAC Duct Systems Inspection Guide, 2000.

This manual contains guidelines for inspection of commercial HVAC duct systems for compliance with SMACNA's standards and includes checklists for ductwork and fire dampers.

Papers and Magazine Articles

Data Logging and Trend Analysis

Heating Piping and Air Conditioning published a series of articles on Data loggers, Trending, and Trend analysis.  These articles as well as others published in the magazine can be downloaded for a nominal fee by visiting www.hpac.com/:

Selecting Data Loggers: Fundamental questions to ask before buying a system  December 2002

Installation of Data Loggers: “Aliasing” and other pre-installation considerations January 2003

Data Logger Operation Tips: Working with data: trend analysis and spread-sheeting February 2003

Commissioning Data Loggers: Caulk, duct-tape, flashlights, and other essential tools March 2003

A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words; “Tricks of the Trade” for converting your control system’s trend data into graphics As of May, 2003, this article is in press and will appear in a future issue.

Friedman, Hannah;  Piette, Mary Ann;  Comparative Guide to Emerging Diagnostic Tools for Large Commercial HVAC Systems, 2001, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley Lab can be downloaded from the PECI web site at www.peci.org.

Commissioning Air Handling Systems and Related Equipment

Luskay, Larry, and David Sellers, Why the “Simple Underfloor Air Distribution System” Isn’t Quite as Simple as It Seems, Proceedings of the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy: Washington, D.C., 2002.

Sellers, David, Commissioning Control Valves, HPAC Engineering,

www.peci.org/library/PECI_CxControlValve1_1002.pdf (75KB)

Sellers, David, Dampers: Good Commissioning Begins at Design, HPAC Engineering, September 2000.

www.peci.org/library/PECI_Dampers1_1002.pdf (4.6MB)

Sellers, David, Irvine, Linda, Commissioning to Meet Space Qualification Criteria vs. Energy Consumption Optimization Focused Commissioning, Proceedings from the 2001International Conference on Enhanced Building Operations.

www.peci.org/library/PECI_CxCriteria1_1002.pdf (3.1MB)

Sellers, David, Using Utility Bills and Average Daily Energy Consumption to Target Commissioning Efforts and Track Building Performance, Proceedings from the 2001International Conference on Enhanced Building Operations.

www.peci.org/library/PECI_UtilBills1_1002.pdf (310KB)

Sellers, David, An Overview of Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control and Suggestions for Its Successful Application and Implementation, Proceedings from the 2001International Conference on Enhanced Building Operations.

www.peci.org/library/PECI_ControlOverview1_1002.pdf (2.3MB)

Chimack, Mark, and Sellers, David, Using Extended Surface Air Filters in Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems: Reducing Utility and Maintenance Costs while Benefiting the Environment, 2001.

www.peci.org/library/PECI_HVACfilters1_1002.pdf (200KB)

Sellers, David, The Versatile Valve for HVAC Applications, HPAC Engineering, June 2002.

www.peci.org/library/PECI_Valves1_1002.pdf (531KB)

Dillard, William M. and Salmon, Justin S., Coil Cleaning: Myths And Misrepresentation is available on the Contracting Business Interactive web site.  It includes a coil cleaning case study along with some interesting information and can be viewed at:

www.contractingbusiness.com/editorial/serviceclinic/coil_cleaning.cfm

Williams, Gerald J., Fan Heat, its Source and Significance was published in the January 1989 issue of Heating, Piping, and Air Conditioning is an excellent reference if you are trying to understand fan heat and pump heat, the similarities and differences between them, and how they can impact system performance.

Pearson, Dennis and Skumatz, Lisa A., Non-Energy Benefits Including Productivity, Liability, Tenant Satisfaction, and Others: What Participant Surveys Tell Us about Designing and Marketing Commercial Programs, is included in the proceedings from the 2002 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings contains data that may be useful in evaluating the financial impacts of lost productivity or product which can occur as a direct result of a fouled coil’s inability to handle the load it is intended to serve.  Proceedings can be obtained by visiting:

www.aceee.org/

Websites

DDC Online: DDC-Online provides unbiased information on Direct Digital Controls (DDC) and an easy searchable guide to DDC manufacturers.

www.ddc-online.org/

Energy Use Intensity Factor Benchmarking Information and Tool - An EUI benchmarking tool is available from the Oakridge National Laboratory that will guide you through the process of benchmarking your building’s energy use against national data for different building types.

http://eber.ed.ornl.gov/benchmark/bldgtype.htm

Power Systems Engineering - The Power Systems Engineering site has good technical information on electrical testing and electrical distribution systems.  They are actively involved in the electrical commissioning field.

www.powerstudies.com/

Straight Line Control Inc. - Straight Line Control offers a very comprehensive PID loop theory and turning manual as well as a very inexpensive loop tuning training software package. Both are well worth the money and can be ordered on line.  A demo version of the training software can be downloaded.

http://members.aol.com/pidcontrol

Coad Engineering Enterprises - This is Bill Coad’s company web site.  Mr. Coad is a consulting principal and past Chairman/CEO of The McClure Corporation (dba McClure Engineering Associates). He is also immediate past President of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).  As an educator, he has served as a Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering for 12 years at Washington University in St. Louis. For 17 years he was an Affiliate Professor at Washington University, teaching graduate courses in Mechanical Engineering and serving as a thesis advisor in building environmental systems design.

The web site has a monthly discussion topic related to some aspect of HVAC engineering.  The first two discussions on Psychrometrics and creating your own psych chart are especially informative.

www.coadengineering.com/

Magazines

Heating, Piping, and Air Conditioning - This is HPAC’s site and it contains archives of articles and columns.  Most of the columns can be downloaded for free.  Feature articles have a nominal cost associated with them to comply with copyright laws.

www.hpac.com

Control Engineering Magazine - To order a copy of “Reference Guide to PID Tuning” visit www.controleng.com/info and request number 367 for the August 1998 North American Issue of Control Engineering.  The site also has a lot of good information on all aspects of control as well as related technologies like variable speed drives.  It all can be downloaded for free.

www.controleng.com/

ASHRAE Journal - This is the monthly ASHRAE publication that is part of the membership benefits.  Members also have access to past articles via the website.

Engineered Systems - This magazine focuses on the HVAC industry and includes regular feature articles on commissioning.  Visit their web site to view past articles and subscribe:

www.esmagazine.com/

Sensors Magazine - This is a great way to keep up on emerging sensing technologies that are in place or will show up in the HVAC industry.  Visit their web site to view past articles and subscribe:

www.sensorsmag.com/

PM Engineer Magazine - This publication deals with the hydronic systems that frequently supply utilities to air handling systems.

www.pmengineer.com/

Energy Design Resources - This energy-efficient design site contains numerous design guides and case studies.  The following is a list of topics, may be of interest to commissioning and operations personnel.  www.energydesignresources.com

Air conditioning and Ventilation

Building Commissioning

Building Integrated Photovoltaics

Building Simulation

Chiller Plant Efficiency

Daylighting

Design Details

Design for your Climate

Design Review

Drivepower

Economizers

Energy Management Systems

Field Review

Glazing

HID Fluorescent Lighting

Indoor Air Quality

Integrated Energy Design

Lighting

Lighting Controls

Options and Opportunities

Performance Based Compensation

Radiant Cooling

Smart Buildings

Underfloor Air Distribution

Blender Products Inc. - The Blender Products web site has some good technical information on mixing as well as how air blenders can be used to improve it.

www.airblender.com/education.htm

Minco - Minco has a lot of good on-line/downloadable reference information about temperature sensors and temperature measurement practice

www.minco.com/support/

Omega Engineering - Omega has a lot of good technical information on all types of sensor technology.  Most of it can be downloaded for free.

www.omega.com/

Pumps and Processes - This is the web site for Pumps and Processes magazine.  It has a lot of useful information on pumps.  Many of the articles can be downloaded for future reference.

www.pumps-processes.com/

Organizations

Building Commissioning Association - The BCA is a professional organization dedicated to “promoting building commissioning practices that maintain high professional standards”.  The BCA newsletter and other publications can be accessed through the site as well as upcoming events and member information.

www.bcxa.org

Iowa Energy Center - This site is the home of DDC on line, which is an extremely useful and informative site all about DDC control systems.  One of the key features are generic system architecture diagrams for approximately 20 different vendor’s systems including key performance information that will help you make an “apples to apples” comparison to be made of different systems.  There is also a section on DDC control system basics and input/output technology and equipment.

www.energy.iastate.edu

ASHRAE - In addition to the psych chart resources listed above, the ASHRAE site has a wealth of industry related information and publications available for purchase including all of the ASHRAE standards.  Many of the items can be downloaded in .PDF format. Members can search and download copies of articles from the ASHRAE Journal.

www.ashrae.org

NETA - The International Electrical Testing Association site has resources that focus on electrical system commissioning and testing.  In addition, NETA publishes an excellent magazine that focuses on those topics and can be ordered via the web site.  Two free sample copies can be obtained, and then, if you like it, you can subscribe.

www.netaworld.org

PECI – Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. is a non-profit corporation that promotes and provides commissioning services, research, and training.  The website contains many commissioning and operations resources, including a model commissioning plan and guide specification, relevant papers and case studies, and a summary of available procedural guidelines, specifications, and functional tests.

www.peci.org

LBNL – Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Building Technologies Department develops window, lighting and glazing technologies that save energy and maximize visual and thermal comfort of building occupants. The Commercial Building Systems Group explores different ways to integrate the efforts of the other Program groups (windows, lighting and simulations) with the goal of developing innovative building construction and design techniques. 

The Control System Design Guide and the Functional Testing Guide were funded through the High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) program administered by LBNL.  The HPCBS website provides information about the latest building energy research in California.

http://buildings.lbl.gov/hpcbs/ (High Performance Commercial Building Systems)

http://eetd.lbl.gov/btp/abs/index.html (Commercial Building Systems Group)

http://eetd.lbl.gov/btp/btp.html (Building Technologies Department)

Tools

ASHRAE Psychrometric Charts - ASHRAE sells both an electronic psychrometric chart as well as a psychrometric program that runs on a Palm Pilot.  The electronic chart is full featured and runs on a PC. 

The Palm Pilot program only plots one point, but gives all of its properties if you enter any two.  Its fairly inexpensive and is available by download.

www.ashrae.org

Akton Associates Inc. Psychrometrics Charts - This is another source for an electronic psychrometric chart that is similar to the ASHRAE product. 

www.aktonassoc.com

ASHRAE Duct Fitting Data Base - ASHRAE recently released an electronic duct fitting data base that will quickly calculate the pressures loss for a wide array of fitting configurations based on inputs like the flow rates and duct sizes.  It will allow you to quickly compare various fitting options on the fly during design, in the course of design review, and when troubleshooting in the field.

www.ashrae.org

Figure 1: Sample output from the ASHRAE Duct Fitting Data Base Comparing High Velocity Elbows

Figure 1 is a comparison that was generated using the fitting data base software in the field in a matter of minutes on a laptop computer.  Field observation had revealed that vanes had not been installed in the return system and the tool output was used to demonstrate in which cases adding vanes would be critical to achieving the required performance.