Integrated Operation and Control

1. Introduction. 2

1.1. Definitions. 2

1.2. Bottoms-Up Testing Approach. 3

1.3. Controls Integration Basics. 4

1.4. Hypothetical Case Study. 6

2. Functional Testing for Integrated Operation and Control7

2.1. Functional Testing Field Tips. 8

2.2. Testing Guidance and Sample Test Forms. 11

3. Integrated Control, Operation, and Commissioning. 12

3.1. Integrated Control13

3.2. Integrated Operation. 15

3.3. The Bottom Line. 18

4. Preparing for System Integration Testing. 19

4.1. Testing Hierarchy. 21

4.2. Climate Interactions. 25

4.3. Operating Environment34

4.4. Planning Tools. 36

5. Component-Level Integration. 36

5.1. Preheat Coil Test37

5.2. Economizer startup. 39

5.3. Variable Frequency Drive Startup. 40

5.4. Trim Humidifier Startup. 41

6. System-Level Integration. 42

6.1. Integrating the Preheat Coil, Cooling Coil, and Economizer48

6.2. Integrating the Supply Fan and Terminal Unit Start-up. 49

7. Whole-Building Integration. 49

7.1. Integrating Warm-up with Hot Water Pumping. 57

7.2. Integrating AHU1 with the existing central plant57

8. Conclusion. 58

 

Figures

Figure 1: AHU1 temperature-control processes interaction potential. 5

Figure 2: Instability in one loop triggers instability elsewhere in the system.. 6

Figure 3: Thermal inertia and a reheat process mask instability and excess ventilation in a fan-terminal unit. 17

Figure 4: A typical testing hierarchy. 21

Figure 5: Annual climate patterns at different locations in the United States. 26

Figure 6: The local climate at the Student Center 27

Figure 7: Outdoor air enthalpy on a rainy day vs. the return air from a typical space. 30

Figure 8: Month-to-month variations in the climate at the Student Center 32

Figure 9: Day-to-day climate variations at the Student Center 33

Figure 10: Issues identified during the construction observation process at the Student Center. 35

Figure 11: St. Louis weather statistics and record temperatures for April 40

Figure 12: Economizer non- linearity. 44

Figure 13: The raw data set that was the source for the data in Figure 2. 46

Figure 14: An AHU set point problem that will impact the chilled water system which will in turn, impact the other AHUs on the site as well as the triggering AHU. 51

Figure 15: Variable-flow chilled-water-plant operation. 53

Figure 16: The impact of matching the performance of the system to real-time requirements of the load. 55